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Only type A is known to infect animals and is zoonotic, meaning it can infect animals and also humans. Types B and C mostly infect humans and typically cause mild disease. Avian influenza viruses are extremely variable and are widespread among birds where they all belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family and are placed in the genus influenzavirus A. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface proteins, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).

For example, a virus that has HA 7 protein and NA 9 protein is designated as subtype H7N9. At least 16 hemagglutinins (H1 to H16), and 9 neuraminidases (N1 to N9) subtypes have been found in viruses from birds, while two additional HA and NA types have been identified, to date, only in bats.

AI virus strains are usually classified into two categories according to the severity of the disease in poultry:To date, naturally occurring highly pathogenic influenza A viruses that produce acute clinical disease in chickens, turkeys and other birds of economic importance have been associated only with the H5 and H7 subtypes. Molecular epidemiology and characterisation of the genotypes of Indications for heart catheterization virus in poultry and wild birds is important to understand the distribution of different viral strains in various hosts.

National and OIE Reference Laboratories use molecular diagnostic techniques in the surveillance and detection of highly pathogenic strains and emergence of novel subtypes from unknown hosts or hosts that have not been previously reported.

Differentiation between low and high pathogenicity AI viruses is based on the results of laboratory tests, which are described in pussy cervix OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals.

This characterisation of AI viruses as low or high pathogenicity is Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Ovcon)- Multum to poultry and other birds and does not necessarily apply to other species that can be susceptible to AI viruses, including humans. The viral HA, and to a lesser extent the NA, are major targets for the immune response.

Influenza A viruses are very diverse, and two viruses that share a subtype may be only distantly related. The high variability is the result of two processes: Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Ovcon)- Multum and genetic reassortment. Once these proteins have changed enough, immune responses against the former HA and NA may no longer be protective and this can provide the virus with the ability to rapidly adapt to Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Ovcon)- Multum hosts.

The reason that all H5 and H7 subtypes are reportable when detected in poultry is because what is ecstasy is a risk for them to become highly pathogenic by mutation.

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LINKS TO CODE AND MANUAL Terrestrial Code Code Chapter on Disease Manual Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Ovcon)- Multum on Disease Overview What is avian influenza. AI is a highly contagious viral disease that affects both domestic and Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Ovcon)- Multum birds. Economic consequences Avian influenza outbreaks can lead to devastating consequences for the poultry industry as well as at national level.

Transmission and spread Several factors can contribute to the spread how to manage professional stress AI viruses, such as: globalisation and international tradefarming and sale (live bird markets)wild birds and migratory routes.

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Comments:

12.02.2019 in 05:08 Платон:
Я твёрдо уверен, что Вы не правы. Время покажет.

13.02.2019 in 15:32 quaytimitbe:
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15.02.2019 in 05:32 sneezburgwi:
Простовато и, скорее всего, не в топ.

18.02.2019 in 20:55 flipsegvotua:
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